Rabu, 30 Maret 2011

Adjectives


Adjectives (kata sifat) adalah kata-kata yang menerangkan kata benda (nouns) atau kata ganti (pronouns). Adjectives dapat diletakkan sebelum kata benda atau setelah kata kerja tertentu. Kita juga dapat meletakkan lebih dari 1 kata sifat di depan kata benda.

Pembagian Kata Sifat (Adjectives)
  1. Quality Adjectives
  2. Possessive Adjectives
  3. Demonstrative Adjectives
  4. Interrogative Adjectives
  5. Quantity Adjectives
  6. Numeral Adjectives
  7. Proper Adjectives
  8. Distributive Adjectives
1. Quality Adjectives (Kata Sifat Kualitas)

Quality Adjectives disebut juga kata sifat yang menunjukkan bentuk, ukutan, kondisi, warna, bahan, fungsi dll dari kata benda atau kata ganti.

Posisi Quality Adjectives

a. Attributives

Attributive Adjectives diletakkan sebelum kata benda atau diantara article dan kata benda.

Contoh:
  • I can see a beautiful girl.
  • I have got a new book.
b. Predicatives

Predicative Adjectives dibagi lagi menjadi:

1. Subject Complement

Contoh:
  • Your daughter is pretty.
  • She is very beautiful.
  • The book is new.
2. Object Complement

Contoh:
  • He made his wife happy.
  • I consider him foolish.
  • She pushed the window open.
C. Appositives

Appositive Adjectives biasanya mengikuti kata bendanya dan menjelaskannya. Jenis ini terbagi menjadi dua bagian, yaitu:

1. Restrictive
  • A teacher untrained in Phonetics is as useless as a doctor untrained in anatomy.
2. Non-restrictive
  • A blacksmith, swarthy and muscular, was leisurely working the long handle of his bellow.
2. Possessive Adjectives (Kata Sifat Kepunyaan)

Possessive adjectives terdiri dari my, our, their, your, his, her, its.

1. Sebagai Subjective Complement
  • What is your phone number?
  • That us my house.
2. Sebagai Object
  • I can't complete my assignment because I don't have the text book.
  • The bakery sold hisfavourite type of bread.
3. Sebagai Object of Prepositions
  • After many years, she returned to her homeland.
  • They give everything to their mother.
3. Demonstrative Adjectives (Kata Sifat Penunjuk)

Kata Sifat ini terbagi menjadi 2 bagian, yaitu:

1. Definite, yang terdiri dari this, that, these, those.
  • This book is mine
  • Those pictures are beautiful.
2. Indefinite, yang terdiri dari another, the other, an, a, some, dll.
  • A teacher will come to teach us today.
  • They can eat the other apples.
4. Interrogative Adjectives (Kata Sifat Tanya)

Kata sifat jenis ini terdiri dari:

a. Sebagai Subject
  • What color is your house?
  • Whose book is this?
b. Sebagai Object
  • I don't know what problem she is talking about.
  • They never question which part of the novel will be summarized.
c. Sebagai Object of Prepositions
  • With whose father do you speak?
  • In which hotel do you like to stay?
5. Quantity Adjectives (Kata Sifat Kuantitas)

Kata-kata yang termasuk dalam jenis ini adalah much, some, enough, little, half, any, dll.
  • He ate little bread.
  • Will you have some tea?
6. Numeral Adjectives (Kata Sifat Penomoran)

Kata Sifat jenis ini terbagi atas:

1. Definite, yang menunjukkan jumlah yang pasti dari suatu kata benda atau kata ganti.

a. Cardinal
  • We have three cars at home.
  • You can take twelve books.
b. Ordinal
  • Our class is in the third floor.
  • They will depart on the second flight.
c. Multiplications
  • The rooms have a single bed.
  • There is a pair of shoes under the table.
2. Indefinite
  • Kata-kata yang termasuk dalam jenis ini adalah all, some, enough, many, dll.
  • Many people believe that corporations are under-taxed
  • I will buy some pens
  • I am waiting for some friends here.
7. Proper Adjectives (Kata Sifat Nama Diri)

Proper Nouns
  • England
  • Holland
  • Indonesia, dll
Proper Adjectives
  • English
  • Dutch
  • Indonesian, dll
  •  English people like drinking tea.
  • Arabian people like eating dates.
8. Distributive Adjectives (Kata Sifat Distributif)

Kata-kata yang sering dipakai adalah each, every, neither, either.
  • She reads every book in the library
  • I can choose either red or yellow car.
Order of Adjectives (Susunan Kata Sifat)
Sebelum mepelajari bagian ini, coba Anda pilih mana frasa yang benar dari 2 frasa yang ada di bawah ini.
  • Perempuan tua yang kaya, atau
  • Perempuan kaya yang tua.
Dalam bahasa Indonesia, kedua frasa di atas, hamper tidak ada masalah. Namun dalam bahasa Inggris, salah satu diantaranya tidak sesuai dengan standard tata bahasa. Mari kita ingat urutan kata sifat yang benar di depan kata benda.

DOSASCOMP

D
= Determiner (the, a, an, some, dll)
O = Opinion (beautiful, rich, diligent, dll)
S = Size (big, small, long, dll)
A = Age (young, old, new)
S = Shape (round, fat, thin, dll)
C = Color (white, yellow, red, dll)
O = Origin (Italy, Indonesia, Malaysia, dll)
M = Material (rubber, plastic, cotton, dll)
P = Purpose (tennis, school, dll)

Mari kita urutkan kata-kata sifat yang ada dalam frasa di atas:

Perempuan = Kata benda (letaknya terakhir = No. 10 setelah purpose)
  • Kaya = Kata Sifat = Opinion (No. 2)
  • Tua = Kata Sifat = Age (no. 4)
Jadi urutan yang benar adalah 2, 4, 10
Kaya, tua, perempuan = Rich old lady
  • I have a beautiful large house.
  • She has an expensive tennis racket.
Degree of Comparison

Sebelum kita membahas mengenai topik ini, ada baiknya kita mengingat bentuk perubahan kata sifat menjadi tingkat lebih (comparative) dan tingkat paling (superlative).

1. Kata Sifat dengan 1 suku kata
  • Big - bigger - biggest
  • Small - smaller - smallest
  • Thin - thinner - thinnest
  • Old - older - oldest
  • Dst.
2. Kata Sifat yang lebih dari 1 suku kata
  • Beautiful - more beautiful - most beautiful
  • Expensive - more expensive - most expensive
  • Interesting - more interesting - most interesting
  • Dst
3. Kata Sifat yang berakhiran dengan huruf "y"
  • Happy - happier - happiest
  • Easy - easier - easiest
  • Busy - busier - busiest
4. Kata Sifat yang berakhiran dengan some, low, le, dan er
  • Handsome - more handsome/handsomer - most handsome/handsomest
  • Narrow - more narrow/narrower - most narrow/narrowest
  • Gentle - more gentle/gentler - most gentle/gentlest
  • Clever - more clever/cleverer - most clever/cleverest
Catatan: untuk kata sifat jenis di atas, lebih baik menggunakan more untuk comparative dan most untuk superlative daripada menggunakan ...er dan ...est, walaupun kedua-duanya benar.

5. Kata Sifat tak beraturan
  • Good - well - best
  • Bad - worse - worst
  • Little - less - least
  • Much - more - most
  • Many - more - most
  • Far - further/farther - furthest/farthest
  • Dll
6. Kata Sifat lainnya
Polite, quiet, wicked, pleasant, tired, cruel, stupid memiliki 2 jenis tingkat perbandingannya seperti yang berlaku pada kata sifat jenis no. 4. Namun, ada baiknya menggunakan more dan most untuk tingkat lebih dan tingkat paling-nya.

7. Kat Sifat yang tidak dapat dibuat tingkat perbandingannya
  • Wrong, right, single, empty, full, equal, correct, unique, universal, perfect, pregnant, dll.
1. Equal Comparison

Rumus:
As + adjectives + as
  • This book is as cheap as mine
  • You are as beautiful as my mother

2. Comparative (Tingkat Lebih)

Rumus:
Comparative + than
  • Your house is bigger than mine
  • She is more beautiful than her sister
3. Superlative (Tingkat Paling)

Rumus:
The + superlative
  • She is the best student in the class.
  • Mr. William is the oldest teachers at school.
4. Parallel Comparison

Rumus:
  • The + comparative, the + comparative (semakin..., semakin...)
  • Comparative and comparative (makin lama makin ...)
  • The harder you study, the better chance you'll get (makin keras kamu belajar, makin baik pula peluang yang akan kamu peroleh)
  • You look more and more beautiful (kamu makin lama makin cantik)
  • You are better and better (Kamu makin lama makin bagus saja)
5. Logical Comparison

a. Possessive
  • Henry's salary is much higher than Alex's
  • My mother gets better than yours
b. That of
  • The climate in Bandung is as mild as that of in Palembang (that of = the climate of)
c. Those of
  • The duties of a driver are much more dangerous than those of a teacher
d. Any
  • Mary is smarter than anybody else in the class.
  • Bali is smaller than any other province in Indonesia.

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